New Evidence May Indicate That a New Type of Galaxy With Zero Dark Matter Exist

Some major cosmological riddles have yet to be solved.

For example, despite the fact that we don’t really know what it is, dark matter has become an important element of our knowledge of how galaxies develop, evolve, and create solar systems like ours. However, a series of new studies are revealing flaws in this body of thought, since other galaxies appear to be OK without the mystery force.

According to a forthcoming study in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society that is already available on a preprint server, a team of astronomers discovered another galaxy without a single trace of dark matter, despite repeating measurements for forty hours with the most advanced telescopes in operation.

The cosmos is becoming increasingly bizarre.

With no dark matter, the velocity of a galaxy may be described.

The strange galaxy, known as AGC 114905, is one of six discovered with little to no dark matter. When this was confirmed, Pavel Mancera Pia of the University of Groningen and ASTRON in the Netherlands, together with his colleagues, were told to “measure again, you’ll see that there will be dark matter around your galaxy.” as stated in a news release

However, after forty hours of incredibly detailed observations with the Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico, the data clearly suggested the presence of a new type of galaxy with no dark matter at all. The galaxy under consideration in the next research, AGC 114905, is an ultra-diffuse dwarf galaxy located around 250 million light-years from Earth. The “dwarf” modifier refers to its brightness rather than its size (it’s a large dim one, around the size of our own Milky Way).

Despite its equal size, the dwarf galaxy has a thousand times fewer stars than our galaxy. However, the galaxy’s absence of dark matter calls into question the current understanding of how galaxies operate. It is thought that the power of dark matter holds all galaxies together, huge or little, dwarf or gargantuan.

However, after the investigation, the researchers created a graph that showed the distance of rotating gas from the galaxy’s center on the x-axis and the rotation speed of the same gas on the y-axis. This is a common method for detecting the presence of an unknown force, particularly dark matter. However, the statistics show that the mobility of gas in AGC 114905 can be entirely explained by normal matter.

We may be dealing with a separate class of galaxies.

“Of course, this is what we expected and hoped for because it supports our earlier measurements,” Pia stated in a news statement. “However, the theory predicts that there must be dark matter in AGC 114905, but our measurements show that there isn’t. In reality, the gap between theory and observation is growing wider.”

The research team will present many plausible theories for the missing dark matter in a future journal. One theory is that the dark matter was taken away by surrounding galaxies on a huge scale. Pia, on the other hand, discounted this notion since “There are no such things. And, under the most well-known framework for galaxy formation, the so-called cold dark matter hypothesis, we would have to incorporate extreme parameter values that are well beyond the normal range.”

“We also cannot duplicate the movements of the gas within the galaxy using modified Newtonian dynamics, an alternative explanation to cold dark matter,” Pia stated in the announcement. However, the researchers believe that one additional assumption might change their original results. If they account for the estimated angle at which we observe the galaxy from Earth, they might be able to explain for the missing dark matter.

However, “that angle needs to diverge very considerably from our estimate before there is room for dark matter again,” said Tom Oosterloo, an ASTRON co-author, in a press statement. This discovery follows a previous one by Dutch-American Pieter Van Dokkum (of Yale), who discovered a galaxy with essentially no dark matter.

While the methods for examining and evaluating these out-of-the-ordinary galaxies varies, the consistency is remarkable, and it suggests that we may need to work harder to comprehend a distinct form of galaxy that requires no dark matter to exist throughout eons of old cosmic time.

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